The darbuka, often called the goblet drum, is a membranophone often used in Egyptian music culture, although it originated in Arabia. The term darbuka is derived from the Arabic word "daraba" which means to strike.
Smaller darbuka drums are often played while held under your arm or by placing it sideways on your lap. Larger ones can be placed on the floor to play.
A darbuka has three distinct sounds that can come from playing it.
The first one is a bassy sound, often called the "doom" sound. The second sound is a "tak" or "ka" sound that has a higher pitch since it's produced by hitting near the edge of the drum's head with your fingertips. The third is a more closed tone and sounds like "pa".
There are many terms that the darbuka can be substituted for, as long as you remember not to mistake it for a Congo. Darbuka players really get mad when they hear their instrument incorrectly referred to as a congo drum!
A "Sombaty" or a "Doholla" is a larger darbuka. The term Doumbek is also interchangeable with the darbuka.
However, professionals will tell you that there is a slight true difference between the two since the darbuka is like a smaller and more modern version of a Doumbek.
This drum may also be called the chalice drum, tarabana, tarabuka, tarabaki, derbake, debuka, doumbek, tabla, dumbec, dumbeg, dumbelek, toumperleki, tumbak, or zerbaghali. A lot of terms, I know!
The djembe is a very similar instrument to the darbuka and is often mistaken to be the same thing. Originally from Africa, the djembe has a much more rich tone than a darbuka.
Darbukas have a sharper tone that can also be softer in volume and more appropriate for intimate performances, such as a feature performance with a solo dancer.
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Very traditional darbukas from way back in the day were made from wood, but it would be pretty hard to find a wooden one these days. Thankfully, you wouldn't really want or need one that's wooden since they are usually of lower quality anyway.
Clay darbukas are quite popular among players, but it is important to note that they don't hold up quite that well in cold weather.
They are best for hot temperatures outside since they are made with animal skin. Darbukas made from clay can also break easily, so you might not want to make this your starting point if you're a beginner.
More modern darbukas are made with metal and are much more durable, which makes them a perfect fit for beginners and younger players.
These won't go out of tune as fast as one of the other styles and are also much more affordable. The only downside is that they don't look as beautiful as wooden or clay ones with designs.
Darbukas are made slightly differently in Turkey due to their flat head that has sharp edges with exposed tuning lugs.
These aren't a good fit for beginners either, but they are a welcome challenge for those who have experience playing this type of drum.
If you're looking to get a darbuka of your own, check these out on Amazon!
Ramzy was an Egyptian percussionist and composer known for his mastery of the Darbuka. He collaborated with numerous renowned artists and played a significant role in popularizing Middle Eastern music globally.
Misirli Ahmet is a Turkish Darbuka player who is highly respected for his virtuosic skills and innovative playing techniques. He has performed with various Turkish music ensembles and has made significant contributions to the development of Turkish percussion music.
Musician Raquy Danziger is an American Darbuka player and composer who has gained recognition for her innovative and energetic style of playing. She blends traditional Middle Eastern rhythms with contemporary influences, pushing the boundaries of Darbuka music.
Rony Barrak is a Lebanese Darbuka player recognized for his exceptional talent and versatility. He has performed with prestigious orchestras worldwide, showcasing the range and expressive capabilities of the Darbuka.
Israeli Darbuka player Yshai Afterman is known for his rhythmic precision and creative approach. He has collaborated with international artists and is recognized for his contributions to the fusion of Middle Eastern and Western music.
Maqsoum is one of the most commonly used rhythms in Middle Eastern music and is frequently played on the Darbuka. It has a distinctive 4/4 pattern, with variations and improvisations often added by the performer.
Baladi is another popular rhythm played on the Darbuka, particularly in Egyptian and Lebanese music. It has a lively and energetic 4/4 beat that is often accompanied by belly dancing.
Malfuf is a fast-paced rhythm commonly used in traditional Arabic music. It is characterized by its 2/4 time signature and a rapid, repetitive pattern that creates an exciting and energetic atmosphere.
Karsilama is a Turkish rhythm often played on the Darbuka. It has a unique 9/8 time signature, creating a complex and syncopated feel. Karsilama is frequently used in folk and belly dance music.
Ayoub, also known as "Ayub" or "Ayoob," is a rhythmic pattern originating from North Africa. It is often played on the Darbuka and has a distinctive 2/4 time signature, featuring a strong downbeat followed by softer beats.
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