As you may already know, the term soprano is used to describe the highest general voice range for singers. Several different types of sopranos fall under the general term, but most people just stick with calling a singer a soprano if they sing high.
The word "soprano" is derived from the Italian word "sopra" which means on top or above. It also comes from the Latin word "superius" which also means high above. Soprano usually refers to a woman singer, but a man with a high voice can be called a sopranist or a countertenor.
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As an alto singer, I love to tease my soprano singer friends and call myself one that doesn't follow the crowd. Almost every girl in the choirs I participated in throughout grade school and college just had to be a soprano. The soprano section was always thick, while the alto section barely had anyone who really wanted to sing. As if altos aren't impressive as well!
Sopranos often get the song's melody, making their parts stand out and easier to grasp as a new singer. This rings especially true for singers that are reading music while singing. Sopranos often have parts that shine really well, so it's no wonder that everyone wants to be "on top" in a sense. Singing beautifully and high at the same time just hits different.
Most will say that a soprano's range usually spans from C4 to C6. Some sopranos can sing much lower than this, but this doesn't mean that they lose the title of a soprano. Singers who sing a bit lower than typical sopranos are often called Mezzo-Sopranos, which is often interchanged with the term alto. I myself have often been called a soprano instead of an alto, but I just won't accept it (as I said before, I like to go against the grain).
Keep in mind that all of these terms stem from more classical styles of singing, so there's no need to get too hung up on it if you're not a classical singer. You can just stick to the general term of soprano to be safe if you sing in the range mentioned above.
Here are some soprano voice examples if you want to get a better idea of the range and vocal timbre that comes with it. Some sopranos prefer to sing softly and smoothly like Minnie Riperton, and others can be powerhouses like Kelly Clarkson. While most of them sing beautifully in the mid-range, some sopranos can hit low notes with their chest voice quite often, like Beyonce.
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